Literature Review

1. What are the current research available/you have come across?

We have came across a few experiments similar to ours. From science, we found a test on moisturizers and their effects on the skin. It test for the amount of liquid left after applying the moisturizers on jelly and see which brands works the best. Another research would be a multilayered membrane and could be used as a synthetic skin. Some companies in the soap and other detergent manufacturing industry uses the eggshell as their supposedly synthetic skin such as Nivea.

2. Summarise the research articles that you have encountered which may be useful to your research.

We read up about the differences between liquid soap and bar soap, the pros and cons that separate the two. The cons about bar soap is that it has a higher pH level than liquid soap. The pros of bar soap is that it contains glycerin, good for people with eczema. The cons for liquid soap is the tendency to overuse it. The pros of liquid soap are that it contains moisturizers that are milder to the skin. This could help us in deciding which is better for the average human.

Here was what we found about soap:

In Chemistry, soaps are the salts of fatty acids. They are mainly used for washing, cleaning or bathing. Besides that, they can be used in textile making and lubricants.

The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BCE in ancient Babylon.

 The industrial production of soap involves continuous processes, such as continuous addition of fat and removal of product. Smaller-scale production involves the traditional batch processes. The three variations are: the 'cold process', wherein the reaction takes place substantially at room temperature, the 'semiboiled' or 'hot process', wherein the reaction takes place near the boiling point, and the 'fully boiled process', wherein the reactants are boiled at least once and the glycerolis recovered. There are two types of 'semiboiled' hot process methods. The first is the ITMHP (in the mold hot process)and the second is the CPHP (crockpot hot process). Typically soapmakers choose the hot process methods if they wish to remove the cure time to a three-day air dry process. Most soapmakers, however, continue to prefer the cold process method. The cold process and hot process (semiboiled) are the simplest and typically used by small artisans and hobbyists producing handmade decorative soaps. The glycerine remains in the soap and the reaction continues for many days after the soap is poured into moulds. The glycerine is left during the hot-process method, but at the high temperature employed, the reaction is practically completed in the kettle, before the soap is poured into moulds. This simple and quick process is employed in small factories all over the world.

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